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  • Chem Sci Trans., 2012, 1(3),  pp 470-481  

    DOI:10.7598/cst2012.177

    Review Article

    Fate and Remediation of Organotin Compounds in Seawaters and Soils

  • OLUSHOLA S. AYANDAa*, OLALEKAN S. FATOKIa, FOLAHAN A. ADEKOLAb and BHEKUMUSA J. XIMBAa
  • aDepartment of Chemistry, Faculty of Applied Sciences, Cape Peninsula University of Technology, P.O. Box 652, Cape Town, South Africa
    bDepartment of Chemistry, University of Ilorin, P.M.B 1515, Ilorin, Nigeria
  • Abstract

    Organotin compounds are chemical compounds based on tin with hydrocarbon substituent used in manufacturing industries, especially the antifouling paint industries. These paints are used to prevent the growth of fouling organisms on marine structures and vessels. They are directed at organisms that settle on solid surfaces after a period of mobility in the sea. Organotin antifouling paints are thus exceptional toxic and they interfere with biological processes in a diverse range of species and as a result been banned in many countries around the world. However, these paints are still applied to large shipping vessels while some third world countries are still utilizing them on smaller vessels. There is therefore a need to prevent a significant part of the introduction of antifouling compounds into the marine ecosystem by treatment of shipyard and antifouling paint industrial wastewaters to about 99% reduction on its concentration before discharge into the marine ecosystem.

    Keywords

    Seawater and soil, Organotin compounds, Tribuyltin chloride, Triphenyltin, Biocides, Antifouling paint, Remediation

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